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Find command man page

Section-num : Since a manual is divided into multiple sections so this option is used to display only a specific section of a manual. So this option gives the section in which the given command is present. In this example you can move through the manual pages sections i. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.

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SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Linux Command Line (03) ls, command, and man pages

find Command

Linux was originally developed as a free operating system for personal computers but is currently used for more computer platforms than any other operating system.

Free software is primarily a matter of liberty, not price: users, individually or collectively, are free to do whatever they want with it - this includes the freedom Our goal is to increase awareness of open source and to assist everyone in leveraging its economic and social value. Learn how to use open source to create opportunity and wealth. The find program searches for files that match the specified criteria and optionally executes some function on those files.

Find can compare or identify files based on name, location, type, size, creation and many more attributes. The find manual page documents the complete list of options, operators, actions and setting available for the find command. View the info pages for find for additional information and examples. This page documents common tasks that utilize find and provides examples that use find to solve real problems.

Below is an example using find to locate and view all files that end in. In this example, the viewing command less is utilized to view the list of file names output by the find command. The find command is enclosed in backquotes so that the shell will replace the enclosed programs s with their output.

To restrict the program to only finding files on the current filesystem, use find -xdev to prevents the command from decending to directories on other file systems. To further refine the filtering process, the output of find could have been piped to xargs and filtered by grep as shown below:. For the command above, only the files ending in.

It should be noted that the command line has a maximum length. Therefore, if there is a need to process a large number of files or items an alternate method is needed. The example below illustrates a method of using xargs to direct input to an output file and then execute a command for each element in the output file:. The next example illustrates how to find and edit the list of files with a single invocation:. You can store a file archive in a file, write it on a tape, or send it over a network to extract on another machine.

Here is an example of copying a directory from one machine to another:. This section gives examples of removing unwanted files in various situations. Here is a command to remove the CVS backup files created when an update requires a merge:. To remove old Emacs backup and auto-save files, you can use a command like the following. Lastly, an example of a program that almost certainly does not do what the user intended:. So the above example will probably delete a lot of files the user didn't want to delete.

This command is also likely to do something you did not intend:. People are sometimes stymied by files whose names contain characters such as spaces, tabs, control characters, or characters with the high bit set. The simplest way to remove such files is:. If you are using an old shell, this approach might not work if the file name contains a character with the high bit set; the shell may strip it off. A more reliable way is:. A good way to uniquely identify the problem file is to figure out its inode number; use.

Suppose you have a file whose name contains control characters, and you have found that its inode number is This command prompts you for whether to remove it:. Suppose you want to make sure that everyone can write to the directories in a certain directory tree. Here is a way to find directories lacking either user or group write permission or both , and fix their permissions:. If you want to classify a set of files into several groups based on different criteria, you can use the comma operator to perform multiple independent tests on the files.

Here is an example:. This means that quite often, there is more than one way to do things. Some of the options and facilities only exist for compatibility with other tools, and findutils provides improved ways of doing things.

This might include:. This example concentrates on the actual deletion task rather than on sophisticated ways of locating the files that need to be deleted.

This approach works and in fact would have worked in Version 7 Unix in However, there are a number of problems with this approach. All this is quite inefficient. The most obvious way of doing this is to use the shell's command expansion feature:. The commands above are much more efficient than the first attempt. However, there is a problem with them. The shell has a maximum command length which is imposed by the operating system the actual limit varies between systems.

This means that while the command expansion technique will usually work, it will suddenly fail when there are lots of files to delete. Since the task is to delete unwanted files, this is precisely the time we don't want things to go wrong. We can use it like this:. So far then, the news is all good. However, there is bad news too. Slashes can occur in path names as the directory separator but not in the names of actual directory entries.

This is the ideal choice of separator since it is the only character that cannot appear within a path name. The result is an efficient way of proceeding that correctly handles all the possible characters that could appear in the list of files to delete.

This is good news. However, there is, as I'm sure you're expecting, also more bad news. So, is there a more universal mechanism? The command above seems to be efficient and portable. However, within it lurks a security problem. The problem is shared with all the commands we've tried in this worked example so far, too. For example,. Likewise, the command:. All they needed to do to achieve this was replace a subdirectory with a symbolic link at the vital moment. There is however, a simple solution to the problem.

The command,. This is a much more secure method. We are no longer exposed to a race condition. It's reasonably efficient, but the length of the command line is limited not just by the operating system limits, but also by how many files we actually need to delete from each directory. Is it possible to do any better? In the case of general file processing, no. However, in the specific case of deleting files it is indeed possible to do better.

Is it possible to improve things still further? It then issues a separate system call for each file to be deleted. If we could modify the operating system, there are potential gains that could be made:. The above possibilities sound interesting, but from the kernel's point of view it is difficult to enforce standard Unix access controls for such processing by inode number.

Such a facility would probably need to be restricted to the superuser. Another way of improving performance would be to increase the parallelism of the process. However, since the system administrator can have such an understanding they can take advantage of it like so:. If not, this parallel search might just result in a lot of disk head movement and so the speed might even be slower.

Naturally there are many other possible reasons why this strategy may be unsuitable. So we need to have some way of identifying which files we want to copy, and we need to have a way of copying that file list. Here is a command that solves our problem:.

Suppose we have a directory full of files which is maintained with a set of automated tools; perhaps one set of tools updates them and another set of tools uses the result. In this situation, it might be useful for the second set of tools to know if the files have recently been changed. It might be useful, for example, to have a 'timestamp' file which gives the timestamp on the newest file in the collection. This does the right sort of thing but has a bug.

This resolves our earlier problem, but unfortunately this runs much more slowly. This is indeed faster in general, but the speed difference will depend on how many updated files there are. The command above works by generating a list of the timestamps and names of all the files which are newer than the timestamp.

This approach seems quite efficient, but unfortunately it has a roblem. Many operating systems now keep file modification time information at a granularity which is finer than one second. Findutils version 4. Unfortunately although the solution above is quite elegant, it fails to cope with white space within file names, and adjusting it to do so would require a rather complex shell script.

We can fix both of these problems looping and problems with white space , and do things more efficiently too. The following command works with newlines and doesn't need to sort the list of filenames.

This prints a list of zero or more files, all of which are newer than the original timestamp file, and which have the same timestamp as each other, to the nearest second.

Linux Find Command

Search a folder hierarchy for filename s that meet a desired criteria: Name, Size, File Type - see examples. GNU find searches the directory tree rooted at each given file name by evaluating the given expression from left to right, according to the rules of precedence see Operators , until the outcome is known the left hand side is false for AND operations, true for OR , at which point find moves on to the next file name. The -H, -L and -P options control the treatment of symbolic links. That argument and any following arguments are taken to be the expression describing what is to be searched for.

To use the find command, at the Unix prompt, enter:. Leave the double quotes in.

Click here for a walkthrough video. One of the most important tools to find out what a Unix or C command does is the man command, which display "manual pages" for a particular command. To use a man page, you can use the arrow keys to scroll up and down the page, and you type q to quit, taking you back to where you left off and restoring the screen, which is a nice option. If you are not sure what manual page you want, but you do have a keyword, you can search the manual system to find the page you want, by using the command man -k keyword :. The numbers in parentheses is the manual "section", and a command may show up in different sections.

Use the Unix find command to search for files

By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie Policy , Privacy Policy , and our Terms of Service. It only takes a minute to sign up. Pay attention to the section number: Suppose you want help on printf. The bash version of printf is in section 1, the C version is in section 3 or 3C. If you don't know which one you want, type man -a printf , and all manual pages will be displayed. You may find something like formats 5 , which suggests you to type man 5 formats. If you are annoyed that man printf gives you printf 1 and all you want is printf 3 , you have to change the order of scanned directories in the MANPATH environment variable and put the ones for C language before the ones for shell commands.

find(1) - Linux man page

Linux was originally developed as a free operating system for personal computers but is currently used for more computer platforms than any other operating system. Free software is primarily a matter of liberty, not price: users, individually or collectively, are free to do whatever they want with it - this includes the freedom Our goal is to increase awareness of open source and to assist everyone in leveraging its economic and social value. Learn how to use open source to create opportunity and wealth.

The find command recursively searches the directory tree for each specified Path parameter, seeking files that match a Boolean expression. The Boolean expression is written by using the terms that are provided in the following text.

On Unix-like operating systems, the find command searches for files and directories in a file system. Within each directory tree specified by the given path s, it evaluates the given expression from left to right, according to the rules of precedence see " Operators ", below until the outcome is known. At that point find moves on to the next path until all path s have been searched. It can be used on its own to locate files, or in conjunction with other programs to perform operations on those files.

man command in Linux with Examples

This file documents the GNU utilities for finding files that match certain criteria and performing various operations on them. This file documents the GNU utilities for finding files that match certain criteria and performing various actions on them. This manual shows how to find files that meet criteria you specify, and how to perform various actions on the files that you find.

SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Linux Man Pages - A Quick Tutorial

A very useful aspect of the Linux command line is that the documentation for almost all command line tools is easily accessible. These documents are known as man pages, and you can easily access them through the command line using the man command. In this tutorial, we will discuss the basics of man using some easy to understand examples. But before we do that, it's worth mentioning that all examples in this article have been tested on Ubuntu The man command gives users access to manual pages for command line utilities and tools. Following is the syntax of this command:.

Finding Files

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The commands shown under this section in info page are selectable by placing the cursor on the desired command and then pressing enter key. Frequently I find  25 answers.

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Linux man Command Tutorial for Beginners (8 Examples)

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Linux find command

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find(1) [v7 man page]

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